Developing Multicultural Leaders by Farid A. Muna and Ziad A. Zennie


Developing Multicultural Leaders  by  Farid A. Muna and Ziad A. Zennie strives to understand the journey to leadership success, in the Middle East, focusing on work achievements as the definition of success.

This book analyzes and compares Western and Middle Eastern leadership success models and competencies. Additionally, a framework has been developped for leadership success, by identifying to whom, why, how and when leadership success happens, by using diverse scholar findings and by directly interviewing Middle Eastern leaders and managers.

Thorough statics are provided and leaders personal accomplishments and testimonies are shared.

Finally, Muna and Zennie share their perceptions on displaying or grooming leadership skills and qualities. Muna and Zennie, according to their research, state the following:

  • There are five paths of leadership success: culturally sensitive, cultivating emotional intelligence, working hard and smart, training, career development and self-development.
  • Leadership success is obtained with determination, persistency, luck and/or the support of a great mentor.
  • Traveling, working, studying or living overseas has an impact on multicultural/multinational leadership. The qualities of a leaders is also influenced by culture.


Developing Multicultural Leaders is similar to a research publication.

This book is insightful and useful to leaders and managers working in multicultural and/or multinational settings.

It searches for the commonalities of leadership skills, agrees that most people are not born but made leaders and confirms that certain backgrounds provide natural leadership abilites (natural born leaders should continually seek improvement).

Directly interviewing Middle Eastern leaders and managers in the process in addition of incorporating culture as a factor of leadership success made this book much more relatable.

Favorite quotes

Cultural differences, however, lead some people to believe that “if it’s different from my own culture, it is probably wrong.” This ethnocentric view could be damaging to relations whether on the international, regional, or organizational level, and it is certainly counterproductive to doing business globally.

Ratings 4/5

About the author

Ziad A. Zennie

Farid A. Muna

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